Linux Fundamentals

Linux Fundamentals  Fundamental

This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Linux operating system and shell.

Created by Cry0l1t3
Co-Authors: knightmare

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Linux is an indispensable tool and system in the field of cybersecurity. Many servers run on Linux and offer a wide range of possibilities for offensive security practitioners, network defenders, and systems administrators. This module covers the essentials for starting with the Linux operating system and terminal.

In this module, we will cover:

  • Linux structure
  • Using the shell
  • Navigating the Linux operating system
  • Working with files and directories
  • Linux administration
  • Service management
  • Permissions management

This module is broken down into sections with accompanying hands-on exercises to practice each of the tactics and techniques we cover. The module ends with a practical hands-on skills assessment to gauge your understanding of the various topic areas.

As you work through the module, you will see example commands and command output for the various topics introduced. It is worth reproducing as many of these examples as possible to reinforce further the concepts introduced in each section. You can do this in the Pwnbox provided in the interactive sections or your own virtual machine.

You can start and stop the module at any time and pick up where you left off. There is no time limit or "grading," but you must complete all of the exercises and the skills assessment to receive the maximum number of cubes and have this module marked as complete in any paths you have chosen.

The module is classified as "Fundamental." It assumes that the user has little to no prior experience with the Linux operating system but is generally comfortable navigating a graphical operating system such as Windows.

This module has no prerequisites but serves as the basis for many of the modules contained within the Academy. Completion and an in-depth understanding of this module are crucial for success as you progress through the Academy and Hack the Box platforms.


  • Linux Structure
  • Introduction to Shell
  • Prompt Description
  • Getting Help
  • System Information
  • User Management
  • Package Management
  • Service and Process Management
  • Working with Web Services
  • Navigation
  • Working with Files and Directories
  • Editing Files
  • Find Files and Directories
  • File Descriptors and Redirections
  • Filter Contents
  • Permission Management
  • Shortcuts
  • Linux Security

Relevant Paths

This module progresses you towards the following Paths

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Operating System Fundamentals

Easy 32 Sections

Cubes Required: 20

To succeed in information security, we must have a deep understanding of the Windows and Linux operating systems and be comfortable navigating the command line on both as a "power user." Much of our time in any role, but especially penetration testing, is spent in a Linux shell, Windows cmd or PowerShell console, so we must have the skills to navigate both types of operating systems with ease, manage system services, install applications, manage permissions, and harden the systems we work from in accordance with security best practices.

 Linux Fundamentals

Fundamental 18 Sections

This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Linux operating system and shell.

 Windows Fundamentals

Fundamental 14 Sections

This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Windows operating system.

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