Launching HTB CWEE: Certified Web Exploitation Expert Learn More

Parameter Logic Bugs

This 'secure coding' module teaches how to identify logic bugs through code review and analysis, and covers three types of logic bugs caused by user input manipulation.

4.93

Created by 21y4d

Hard Defensive

Summary

Modern applications tend to have complex logic that may be difficult to understand and maintain. This complexity can lead to logic bugs that attackers can exploit to bypass specific security controls and gain unauthorized access to sensitive data or functionality. In this module, we will learn how to identify and exploit logic bugs in web applications, mainly ones linked to user input.

The Parameter Logic Bugs module will cover the following types of Logic Bugs:

  1. Validation Logic Disparity
  2. Unexpected Input
  3. Null Safety

The module will do so by teaching the following:

  1. Different types of logic bugs
  2. Performing code reviews to identify logic bugs
  3. Setting up a local testing environment
  4. Performing a Proof of Concept (PoC)
  5. Patching the code and re-testing it
  6. Tips on avoiding logic bugs and writing secure code

In addition to teaching the above topics, this module will also cover:

  • What are Logic Bugs?
  • Different examples of real-world Logic Bugs
  • The impact of Logic Bugs
  • General causes of Logic Bugs
  • Client-Side Logic vs Server-Side Logic
  • Identifying Dynamic Validation Tests
  • Types of Validation Logic Disparity Bugs
  • Strongly-typed vs Loosely-typed Languages
  • Types of Unexpected Input Bugs
  • Identifying Functions with User Input
  • Reviewing Schema Models
  • Null-safe code vs Null-unsafe code
  • JavaScript Common Null Pitfalls
  • Flawed Null Checks
  • Identifying Null Variables
  • Required vs Optional Parameters
  • Common Effects of Null Safety Issues

Throughout the module, we will work with a replica of the Hack The Box Academy web application, built from scratch. This will allow us to demonstrate the different types of Logic Bugs in a realistic web application and allow you to follow along with the exercises and practice the various techniques we will cover.

The module is packed with exercises, challenges, extra questions, further reading, and hands-on labs to help you practice the different techniques we will cover. It also includes a practical hands-on skills assessment to gauge your understanding of the various topic areas.

To know more about this module before starting it, we recommend watching this talk from the module author at the HackTheBox Business CTF 2023 titled Finding Logic Bugs in Your Code. It introduces the first few sections of this module and explains the importance of logic bugs and how to find them.


CREST CPSA/CRT-related Sections:

  • All sections

As a "Hard" secure coding module, it requires a solid knowledge of reviewing code bases, understanding their different functionalities, and a good grasp of JavaScript. It also requires intermediate-advanced web application pentesting skills.

The module relies on VSCode and Docker to run and debug the accompanying demo, so it is highly recommended to have them installed on your machine and follow along the instructions found within the module.

The following modules are also considered as pre-requisites before starting this module:

  • Web Requests
  • Introduction to Web Applications
  • Linux Fundamentals
  • Intro to Whitebox Pentesting

Introduction to Logic Bugs


In web application testing, we usually follow rules and techniques when testing and identifying vulnerabilities or bugs. However, some bugs fall into the 'logic bugs' category, which can be notoriously difficult to identify because they are primarily caused by logic flaws.

Despite their complexity, a thorough understanding of logic bugs enables us to create guidelines for their identification. Additionally, adhering to a secure coding methodology during web application development can help eliminate or reduce logic bugs, ensuring the creation of robust applications without logic flaws.

Because this may sound confusing and overwhelming, let us start by explaining logic bugs and go through some examples to understand them better.

What are Logic Bugs?

Logic Bugs are unintentional flaws in how an application processes user input or interactions. Unlike common bugs that can cause crashes or common vulnerabilities that lead to code execution, logic bugs alter how an application behaves under normal conditions.

For instance, consider an application with paid features. A logic bug in the application's code might inadvertently allow access to these features without payment. Logic bugs in the application's flow can often be exploited through normal usage of the application (e.g. front-end only), while parameter-related logic bugs usually require specialized tools for exploitation.

Such flaws would not constitute direct vulnerabilities, nor would they be clear bugs that crash the application or cause a malfunction, but rather cause an unintended behavior that we can take advantage of. These bugs can remain hidden during normal application usage, causing no apparent issues. The application may function perfectly, revealing its flaws only under specific conditions that the developer might not have considered during the initial design. This inherent subtlety makes logic bugs particularly challenging to detect. Moreover, it is crucial to understand that logic bugs impact an application's flow and behavior, distinguishing them from issues that cause crashes or malfunctions.

While automated tools have their merits, identifying logic bugs poses a unique challenge, as they often struggle to fully comprehend, parse, and interconnect the intricate logic within an application's codebase and design. However, the landscape may soon change with recent Artificial Intelligence (AI) advancements.

The most reliable approach to identifying logic bugs remains rooted in human expertise and logic. These skills, combined with the guidance and practices we will explore throughout this module, including codebase reviews and static tests, are pivotal in our pursuit of identifying and addressing logic bugs effectively.

A Trivial Example

funny_password_logic_bug.jpg

The above is a basic example of a Logic Bug, albeit quite comical. It was likely caused by a single line of code written without a proper understanding of its impact, leading to this bug. The developers may have used the unique() keyword for the password database parameter, which entails that every user's password must be unique from everyone else's! This keyword is usually used for emails and usernames, as such parameters need to be unique. However, in this case, whether it was a mishap or intentional, it caused this logic bug.

Furthermore, the application must have been configured with verbose logging, as it appears to show the direct database error to the front-end users, instead of showing a more generic error (e.g. The password is not unique). This basic example shows us the essence of logic bugs, how they occur due to minor mishaps, and how impactful they may be when they are found in sensitive functions "revealing another user's password, in this case".

A Real World Example (Unreleased iPhones)

Note: I will modify some facts and vulnerable components to protect the website's identity; however, the idea and concept should be identical.

One of the earliest instances of a web logic bug I faced was in an online e-shop selling electronics (e.g., Amazon, Walmart, or Target). The iPhone 4 was a day away from release in our region (back then, they spread releases over a longer period), and the product page only showed 'coming soon' instead of the 'add to cart' button. Personally, whenever I try to test a web application for logic bugs, I always start with 'I wonder what would happen if...', and so I wondered whether I would be able to complete the purchase if I somehow managed to add this 'unreleased' item to the shopping cart.

Adding the 'unreleased' iPhone to the shopping cart was a straightforward client-side bypass. I modified the productId in the GET request when adding any other item and replaced it with the unreleased iPhone's product ID. Once added to the cart, instead of displaying "coming soon," the cart revealed the available quantities for each iPhone option. Consequently, I selected the iPhone configuration I desired and chose the option 'pick up from store' because the "delivery" options appeared incorrect, likely due to the web application's inability to handle an "unreleased item." Below is a diagram showcasing the general flow of the attack:

unreleased_iphone_example_diagram.png

When clicking the checkout button, I was confident that the back-end server would handle this error and inform me that the product was 'out of stock' or 'unavailable.' However, to my surprise, I was directed to the payment details page and completed the purchase. I still thought that they would automatically cancel the order. However, to my amazement, after the iPhone was released to the public the next day, I received a pickup appointment and a purchase confirmation. Thus, this bug made the iPhone 4 (in my region) available for purchase before its release date.

I mentioned this incident before picking up the product, but they informed me it was rightfully mine since it had been paid for. As a result, I bypassed the waiting line and placed the order before the release. I promptly reported this bug and suggested a fix. However, as is often the case, no action was taken to address it. My intention had always been to identify and report potential logic bugs rather than exploit them for personal gain.

Logic Bugs CVEs

The iPhone 4 example only illustrates one aspect of logic bugs: they can encompass much more and have a more substantial impact. For instance, macOS systems are recognized for their robust Code Execution protection, which only allows code execution with the user's consent. Nevertheless, in 2021, a security researcher identified a basic logic bug that enables attackers to easily circumvent these protections by starting their script with (#!) and not defining an interpreter (e.g., /bin/bash).

macos_cve_analysis.jpg

Apple did not program the System Policy to handle scripts without an interpreter and considered them safe. This logic bug allowed for the bypass of Code Execution protection on Apple devices. However, CVE-2021-30853 was not the only logic bug to achieve such bypasses. Another logic bug, disclosed in this 2014 post, resulted in the same kind of bypass.

Because they all depend on logic, web applications, mobile apps, operating systems, games, or any computer program ever developed can contain limitless examples of logic bugs because their logic can always be flawed.

Impact of Logic Bugs

As we will see throughout the module, the impact of logic bugs can vary from minor inconveniences to financial losses, account takeovers, denial of service, privilege escalation, and even remote code execution.

Many logic bugs may not be exploitable, due to a certain 'usually unintended' security measure in place. For such cases, there won't be a significant impact other than user inconvenience. However, as a general rule of thumb, the impact of a logic bug is directly related to the sensitivity and importance of the flawed function and its related data. We are always interested in logic bugs in sensitive functions or sensitive data, like item purchases or code execution.

By the end of this module, we will deduce that flawed logic design often stems from insecure coding practices, which frequently lead to critical logic bugs.

Sign Up / Log In to Unlock the Module

Please Sign Up or Log In to unlock the module and access the rest of the sections.

Relevant Paths

This module progresses you towards the following Paths

CREST CPSA/CRT Preparation

This is a skill path to prepare you for CREST's CPSA and CRT exams. The following CPSA/CRT syllabus areas (IDs) are covered: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B4, B5, B6, B8, B9, B13, B14, C1, C2, C3, C4, D1, D2, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E9, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, G1, G2, G4, G5, G6, G7, G8, G9, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H8, H9, H10, H11, H12, H13, I1, I2, I3, I6, J1, J2, J3. Take your time to complete all related sections and when you are ready you can book your CREST exam through the following links. CREST CPSA: https://www.crest-approved.org/certification-careers/crest-certifications/crest-practitioner-security-analyst/. CREST CRT: https://www.crest-approved.org/certification-careers/crest-certifications/crest-registered-penetration-tester/.

Medium Path Sections 828 Sections
Required: 7300
Reward: +1580
Path Modules
Fundamental
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +10
As an information security professional, a firm grasp of networking fundamentals and the required components is necessary. Without a strong foundation in networking, it will be tough to progress in any area of information security. Understanding how a network is structured and how the communication between the individual hosts and servers takes place using the various protocols allows us to understand the entire network structure and its network traffic in detail and how different communication standards are handled. This knowledge is essential to create our tools and to interact with the protocols.
Fundamental
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the topic of HTTP web requests and how different web applications utilize them to communicate with their backends.
Fundamental
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
In the Introduction to Web Applications module, you will learn all of the basics of how web applications work and begin to look at them from an information security perspective.
Fundamental
Path Sections 30 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Linux operating system and shell.
Fundamental
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Windows operating system.
Easy
Path Sections 23 Sections
Reward: +10
As administrators and Pentesters, we may not always be able to utilize a graphical user interface for the actions we need to perform. Introduction to Windows Command Line aims to introduce students to the wide range of uses for Command Prompt and PowerShell within a Windows environment. We will cover basic usage of both key executables for administration, useful PowerShell cmdlets and modules, and different ways to leverage these tools to our benefit.
Medium
Path Sections 6 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers the exploration of Windows Event Logs and their significance in uncovering suspicious activities. Throughout the course, we delve into the anatomy of Windows Event Logs and highlight the logs that hold the most valuable information for investigations. The module also focuses on utilizing Sysmon and Event Logs for detecting and analyzing malicious behavior. Additionally, we delve into Event Tracing for Windows (ETW), explaining its architecture and components, and provide ETW-based detection examples. To streamline the analysis process, we introduce the powerful Get-WinEvent cmdlet.
Hard
Path Sections 9 Sections
Reward: +20
This module offers an exploration of malware analysis, specifically targeting Windows-based threats. The module covers Static Analysis utilizing Linux and Windows tools, Malware Unpacking, Dynamic Analysis (including malware traffic analysis), Reverse Engineering for Code Analysis, and Debugging using x64dbg. Real-world malware examples such as WannaCry, DoomJuice, Brbbot, Dharma, and Meterpreter are analyzed to provide practical experience.
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
Network traffic analysis is used by security teams to monitor network activity and look for anomalies that could indicate security and operational issues. Offensive security practitioners can use network traffic analysis to search for sensitive data such as credentials, hidden applications, reachable network segments, or other potentially sensitive information "on the wire." Network traffic analysis has many uses for attackers and defenders alike.
Easy
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
Through network traffic analysis, this module sharpens skills in detecting link layer attacks such as ARP anomalies and rogue access points, identifying network abnormalities like IP spoofing and TCP handshake irregularities, and uncovering application layer threats from web-based vulnerabilities to peculiar DNS activities.
Fundamental
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
This module teaches the penetration testing process broken down into each stage and discussed in detail. We will cover many aspects of the role of a penetration tester during a penetration test, explained and illustrated with detailed examples. The module also covers pre-engagement steps like the criteria for establishing a contract with a client for a penetration testing engagement.
Easy
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +10
Nmap is one of the most used networking mapping and discovery tools because of its accurate results and efficiency. The tool is widely used by both offensive and defensive security practitioners. This module covers fundamentals that will be needed to use the Nmap tool for performing effective network enumeration.
Medium
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers techniques for footprinting the most commonly used services in almost all enterprise and business IT infrastructures. Footprinting is an essential phase of any penetration test or security audit to identify and prevent information disclosure. Using this process, we examine the individual services and attempt to obtain as much information from them as possible.
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers techniques for identifying and analyzing an organization's web application-based attack surface and tech stack. Information gathering is an essential part of any web application penetration test, and it can be performed either passively or actively.
Easy
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the concept of Vulnerability Assessments. We will review the differences between vulnerability assessments and penetration tests, how to carry out a vulnerability assessment, how to interpret the assessment results, and how to deliver an effective vulnerability assessment report.
Medium
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +10
During an assessment, it is very common for us to transfer files to and from a target system. This module covers file transfer techniques leveraging tools commonly available across all versions of Windows and Linux systems.
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Gain the knowledge and skills to identify and use shells & payloads to establish a foothold on vulnerable Windows & Linux systems. This module utilizes a fictitious scenario where the learner will place themselves in the perspective of a sysadmin trying out for a position on CAT5 Security's network penetration testing team.
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
The Metasploit Framework is an open-source set of tools used for network enumeration, attacks, testing security vulnerabilities, evading detection, performing privilege escalation attacks, and performing post-exploitation.
Medium
Path Sections 22 Sections
Reward: +10
Passwords are still the primary method of authentication in corporate networks. If strong password policies are not in place, users will often opt for weak, easy-to-remember passwords that can often be cracked offline and used to further our access. We will encounter passwords in many forms during our assessments. We must understand the various ways they are stored, how they can be retrieved, methods to crack weak passwords, ways to use hashes that cannot be cracked, and hunting for weak/default password usage.
Medium
Path Sections 19 Sections
Reward: +20
Organizations regularly use a standard set of services for different purposes. It is vital to conduct penetration testing activities on each service internally and externally to ensure that they are not introducing security threats. This module will cover how to enumerate each service and test it against known vulnerabilities and exploits with a standard set of tools.
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers the fundamentals of password cracking using the Hashcat tool.
Fundamental
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +10
Active Directory (AD) is present in the majority of corporate environments. Due to its many features and complexity, it presents a vast attack surface. To be successful as penetration testers and information security professionals, we must have a firm understanding of Active Directory fundamentals, AD structures, functionality, common AD flaws, misconfigurations, and defensive measures.
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
Once a foothold is gained during an assessment, it may be in scope to move laterally and vertically within a target network. Using one compromised machine to access another is called pivoting and allows us to access networks and resources that are not directly accessible to us through the compromised host. Port forwarding accepts the traffic on a given IP address and port and redirects it to a different IP address and port combination. Tunneling is a technique that allows us to encapsulate traffic within another protocol so that it looks like a benign traffic stream.
Medium
Path Sections 9 Sections
Reward: +200
This module covers AD enumeration focusing on the PowerView and SharpView tools. We will cover various techniques for enumerating key AD objects that will inform our attacks in later modules.
Medium
Path Sections 36 Sections
Reward: +20
Active Directory (AD) is the leading enterprise domain management suite, providing identity and access management, centralized domain administration, authentication, and much more. Due to the many features and complexity of AD, it presents a large attack surface that is difficult to secure properly. To be successful as infosec professionals, we must understand AD architectures and how to secure our enterprise environments. As Penetration testers, having a firm grasp of what tools, techniques, and procedures are available to us for enumerating and attacking AD environments and commonly seen AD misconfigurations is a must.
Easy
Path Sections 28 Sections
Reward: +20
Privilege escalation is a crucial phase during any security assessment. During this phase, we attempt to gain access to additional users, hosts, and resources to move closer to the assessment's overall goal. There are many ways to escalate privileges. This module aims to cover the most common methods emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter in a client environment. The techniques covered in this module are not an exhaustive list of all possibilities and aim to avoid extreme "edge-case" tactics that may be seen in a Capture the Flag (CTF) exercise.
Medium
Path Sections 33 Sections
Reward: +20
After gaining a foothold, elevating our privileges will provide more options for persistence and may reveal information stored locally that can further our access in the environment. Enumeration is the key to privilege escalation. When you gain initial shell access to the host, it is important to gain situational awareness and uncover details relating to the OS version, patch level, any installed software, our current privileges, group memberships, and more. Windows presents an enormous attack surface and, being that most companies run Windows hosts in some way, we will more often than not find ourselves gaining access to Windows machines during our assessments. This covers common methods while emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter during an assessment. There are many additional "edge-case" possibilities not covered in this module. We will cover both modern and legacy Windows Server and Desktop versions that may be present in a client environment.
Hard
Path Sections 23 Sections
Reward: +100
Kerberos is an authentication protocol that allows users to authenticate and access services on a potentially insecure network. Due to its prevalence throughout an Active Directory environment, it presents us with a significant attack surface when assessing internal networks. This module will explain how Kerberos works thoroughly and examines several scenarios to practice the most common attacks against it from multiple perspectives.
Hard
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +100
The NTLM authentication protocol is commonly used within Windows-based networks to facilitate authentication between clients and servers. However, NTLM's inherent weaknesses make it susceptible to Adversary-in-the-Middle attacks, providing a significant attack vector. This module focuses on the various NTLM relay attacks that attackers use to compromise Active Directory networks.
DACL Attacks I
Mini-Module
Hard
Path Sections 7 Sections
Reward: +100
Discretionary Access Control Lists (DACLs), found within security descriptors, are a fundamental component of the security model of Windows and Active Directory, defining and enforcing access to the various system resources. This mini-module will cover enumerating and attacking common DACL misconfigurations, allowing us to escalate our privileges horizontally and vertically and move laterally across an Active Directory network.
Medium
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +10
Buffer overflows are common vulnerabilities in software applications that can be exploited to achieve remote code execution (RCE) or perform a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. These vulnerabilities are caused by insecure coding, resulting in an attacker being able to overrun a program's buffer and overwrite adjacent memory locations, changing the program's execution path and resulting in unintended actions.
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +10
This module is your first step into Windows Binary Exploitation, and it will teach you how to exploit local and remote buffer overflow vulnerabilities on Windows machines.
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Web application penetration testing frameworks are an essential part of any web penetration test. This module will teach you two of the best frameworks: Burp Suite and OWASP ZAP.
Easy
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamental enumeration skills of web fuzzing and directory brute forcing using the Ffuf tool. The techniques learned in this module will help us in locating hidden pages, directories, and parameters when targeting web applications.
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Learn how to brute force logins for various types of services and create custom wordlists based on your target.
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers details on Transport Layer Security (TLS) and how it helps to make HTTP secure with the widely used HTTPS. That includes how TLS works, how TLS sessions are established, common TLS misconfigurations, as well as famous attacks on TLS. We will discuss how to identify, exploit, and prevent TLS attacks.
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities are among the most common web application vulnerabilities. An XSS vulnerability may allow an attacker to execute arbitrary JavaScript code within the target's browser and result in complete web application compromise if chained together with other vulnerabilities. This module will teach you how to identify XSS vulnerabilities and exploit them.
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
Maintaining and keeping track of a user's session is an integral part of web applications. It is an area that requires extensive testing to ensure it is set up robustly and securely. This module covers the most common attacks and vulnerabilities that can affect web application sessions, such as Session Hijacking, Session Fixation, Cross-Site Request Forgery, Cross-Site Scripting, and Open Redirects.
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Databases are an important part of web application infrastructure and SQL (Structured Query Language) to store, retrieve, and manipulate information stored in them. SQL injection is a code injection technique used to take advantage of coding vulnerabilities and inject SQL queries via an application to bypass authentication, retrieve data from the back-end database, or achieve code execution on the underlying server.
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
The SQLMap Essentials module will teach you the basics of using SQLMap to discover various types of SQL Injection vulnerabilities, all the way to the advanced enumeration of databases to retrieve all data of interest.
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +10
File Inclusion is a common web application vulnerability, which can be easily overlooked as part of a web application's functionality.
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Arbitrary file uploads are among the most critical web vulnerabilities. These flaws enable attackers to upload malicious files, execute arbitrary commands on the back-end server, and even take control over the entire server and all web applications hosted on it and potentially gain access to sensitive data or cause a service disruption.
Medium
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +20
Command injection vulnerabilities can be leveraged to compromise a hosting server and its entire network. This module will teach you how to identify and exploit command injection vulnerabilities and how to use various filter bypassing techniques to avoid security mitigations.
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
Authentication is probably the most straightforward and prevalent measure used to secure access to resources, and it's the first line of defense against unauthorized access. Broken authentication is currently listed as #7 on the 2021 OWASP Top 10 Web Application Security Risks, falling under the broader category of Identification and Authentication failures. A vulnerability or misconfiguration at the authentication stage can devastatingly impact an application's overall security.
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers three common web vulnerabilities, HTTP Verb Tampering, IDOR, and XXE, each of which can have a significant impact on a company's systems. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of them through various methods.
Medium
Path Sections 33 Sections
Reward: +20
Penetration Testers can come across various applications, such as Content Management Systems, custom web applications, internal portals used by developers and sysadmins, and more. It's common to find the same applications across many different environments. While an application may not be vulnerable in one environment, it may be misconfigured or unpatched in the next. It is important as an assessor to have a firm grasp of enumerating and attacking the common applications discussed in this module. This knowledge will help when encountering other types of applications during assessments.
Medium
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +20
Web services and APIs are frequently exposed to provide certain functionalities in a programmatic way between heterogeneous devices and software components. Both web services and APIs can assist in integrating different applications or facilitate separation within a given application. This module covers how to identify the functionality a web service or API offers and exploit any security-related inefficiencies.
Hard
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +100
In this module, we cover blind SQL injection attacks and MSSQL-specific attacks.
Hard
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers advanced SQL injection techniques with a focus on white-box testing, Java/Spring and PostgreSQL.
Hard
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +100
This 'secure coding' module teaches how to identify logic bugs through code review and analysis, and covers three types of logic bugs caused by user input manipulation.
Easy
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +20
WordPress is an open-source Content Management System (CMS) that can be used for multiple purposes.
Easy
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +20
Proper documentation is paramount during any engagement. The end goal of a technical assessment is the report deliverable which will often be presented to a broad audience within the target organization. We must take detailed notes and be very organized in our documentation, which will help us in the event of an incident during the assessment. This will also help ensure that our reports contain enough detail to illustrate the impact of our findings properly.

Senior Web Penetration Tester

The Senior Web Penetration Tester Job Role Path is designed for individuals who aim to develop skills in identifying advanced and hard-to-find web vulnerabilities using both black box and white box techniques. This path encompasses advanced-level training in web security, web penetration testing, and secure coding concepts. It also provides a deep understanding of the application debugging, source code review, and custom exploit development aspects of web security. Equipped with the necessary theoretical background, multiple practical exercises, and a proven methodology for web vulnerability identification, students will eventually be capable of performing professional security assessments against modern and highly secure web applications, as well as effectively reporting vulnerabilities found in code or arising from logical errors.

Hard Path Sections 245 Sections
Required: 7500
Reward: +1500
Path Modules
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers three injection attacks: XPath injection, LDAP injection, and HTML injection in PDF generation libraries. While XPath and LDAP injection vulnerabilities can lead to authentication bypasses and data exfiltration, HTML injection in PDF generation libraries can lead to Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF), Local File Inclusion (LFI), and other common web vulnerabilities. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of these injection attacks.
Medium
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +100
In this module, we will look at exploiting NoSQL injection vulnerabilities, specifically MongoDB, with examples in Python, PHP, and Node.JS.
Medium
Path Sections 20 Sections
Reward: +100 NEW
Authentication plays an essential role in almost every web application. If a vulnerability arises in the application's authentication mechanism, it could result in unauthorized access, data loss, or potentially even remote code execution, depending on the application's functionality. This module will provide an overview of various access control methods, such as JWT, OAuth, and SAML, and potential attacks against each.
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +100
Modern web browsers and applications utilize a variety of security measures to protect against CSRF and XSS vulnerabilities, rendering their exploitation more difficult. This module focuses on exploiting advanced CSRF and XSS vulnerabilities, identifying and bypassing weak and wrongly implemented defensive mechanisms.
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers details on Transport Layer Security (TLS) and how it helps to make HTTP secure with the widely used HTTPS. That includes how TLS works, how TLS sessions are established, common TLS misconfigurations, as well as famous attacks on TLS. We will discuss how to identify, exploit, and prevent TLS attacks.
Hard
Path Sections 20 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers three common HTTP vulnerabilities: Web Cache Poisoning, Host Header Vulnerabilities, and Session Puzzling or Session Variable Overloading. These vulnerabilities can arise on the HTTP level due to web server misconfigurations, other systems that have to be considered during real-world deployment such as web caches, or coding mistakes in the web application. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of these vulnerabilities.
Hard
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers three HTTP vulnerabilities: CRLF Injection, HTTP Request Smuggling, and HTTP/2 Downgrading. These vulnerabilities can arise on the HTTP level in real-world deployment settings utilizing intermediary systems such as reverse proxies in front of the web server. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of these vulnerabilities.
Hard
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +100
In this module, we cover blind SQL injection attacks and MSSQL-specific attacks.
Hard
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +100
Whitebox penetration testing enables thorough testing to identify various hard-to-find vulnerabilities. This module covers the process of whitebox pentesting and follows that with a practical demo by exploiting an advanced code injection vulnerability.
Hard
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers advanced web concepts and exploitation techniques, including performing DNS Rebinding to bypass faulty SSRF filters and the Same-Origin Policy, identifying and exploiting Second-Order vulnerabilities, and conducting common web attacks via WebSocket connections.
Hard
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
In this module, we will explore deserialization attacks with specific examples in Python and PHP.
Hard
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
This module explores several web vulnerabilities from a whitebox approach: Prototype Pollution, Timing Attacks & Race Conditions, and those arising from Type Juggling. We will discuss how to identify, exploit, and prevent each vulnerability.
Hard
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers advanced SQL injection techniques with a focus on white-box testing, Java/Spring and PostgreSQL.
Hard
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +100
This module focuses on developing custom exploits for .NET deserialization vulnerabilities from a whitebox perspective.
Hard
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +100
This 'secure coding' module teaches how to identify logic bugs through code review and analysis, and covers three types of logic bugs caused by user input manipulation.