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Attacking Common Applications

Penetration Testers can come across various applications, such as Content Management Systems, custom web applications, internal portals used by developers and sysadmins, and more. It's common to find the same applications across many different environments. While an application may not be vulnerable in one environment, it may be misconfigured or unpatched in the next. It is important as an assessor to have a firm grasp of enumerating and attacking the common applications discussed in this module. This knowledge will help when encountering other types of applications during assessments.

4.82

Created by mrb3n
Co-Authors: LTNB0B, bertolis, PandaSt0rm

Medium Offensive

Summary

This module covers a variety of techniques needed to discover, footprint, enumerate, and attack various applications commonly encountered during internal and external penetration tests.

In this module, we will cover:

  • Application Discovery & Enumeration
  • Enumerating and attacking common CMS' such as WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla
  • Enumerating and attacking Tomcat and Jenkins
  • Enumerating and attacking infrastructure tools such as Splunk and PRTG Network Monitor
  • Enumerating and attacking customer service management and configuration management tools such as osTicket and GitLab
  • Other commonly seen applications
  • Application hardening core concepts

CREST CPSA/CRT-related Sections:

  • Introduction to Attacking Common Applications
  • Application Discovery & Enumeration
  • WordPress - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Attacking WordPress
  • Joomla - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Attacking Joomla
  • Drupal - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Attacking Drupal
  • Tomcat - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Attacking Tomcat
  • Jenkins - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Attacking Jenkins
  • Splunk - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Attacking Splunk
  • PRTG Network Monitor
  • osTicket
  • Gitlab - Discovery & Enumeration
  • Other Notable Applications
  • Application Hardening
  • Attacking Common Applications - Skills Assessment I
  • Attacking Common Applications - Skills Assessment II

CREST CCT APP-related Sections:

  • All sections

This module is broken down into sections with accompanying hands-on exercises to practice each of the tactics and techniques we cover. The module ends with a practical hands-on skills assessment to gauge your understanding of the various topic areas.

As you work through the module, you will see example commands and command output for the various topics introduced. It is worth reproducing as many of these examples as possible to reinforce further the concepts presented in each section. You can do this in the target host provided in the interactive sections or your virtual machine.

You can start and stop the module at any time and pick up where you left off. There is no time limit or "grading," but you must complete all of the exercises and the skills assessment to receive the maximum number of cubes and have this module marked as complete in any paths you have chosen.

The module is classified as "medium" and assumes a working knowledge of the Linux command line and operating system fundamentals, networking, information security principles, and web applications.

A firm grasp of the following modules can be considered prerequisites for successful completion of this module:

  • Introduction to Networking
  • Linux Fundamentals
  • Windows Fundamentals
  • Web Requests
  • Introduction to Web Applications
  • Getting Started

Introduction to Attacking Common Applications


Web-based applications are prevalent in most if not all environments that we encounter as penetration testers. During our assessments, we will come across a wide variety of web applications such as Content Management Systems (CMS), custom web applications, intranet portals used by developers and sysadmins, code repositories, network monitoring tools, ticketing systems, wikis, knowledge bases, issue trackers, servlet container applications, and more. It's common to find the same applications across many different environments. While an application may not be vulnerable in one environment, it may be misconfigured or unpatched in the next. An assessor needs to have a firm grasp of enumerating and attacking the common applications covered in this module.

Web applications are interactive applications that can be accessed via web browsers. Web applications typically adopt a client-server architecture to run and handle interactions. They usually are made up of front-end components (the website interface, or "what the user sees") that run on the client-side (browser) and other back-end components (web application source code) that run on the server-side (back end server/databases). For an in-depth study of the structure and function of web applications, check out the Introduction to Web Applications module.

All types of web applications (commercial, open-source, and custom) can suffer from the same kinds of vulnerabilities and misconfigurations, namely the top 10 web application risks covered in the OWASP Top 10. While we may encounter vulnerable versions of many common applications that suffer from known (public) vulnerabilities such as SQL injection, XSS, remote code execution bugs, local file read, and unrestricted file upload, it is equally important for us to understand how we can abuse the built-in functionality of many of these applications to achieve remote code execution.

As organizations continue to harden their external perimeter and limit exposed services, web applications are becoming a more attractive target for malicious actors and penetration testers alike. More and more companies are transitioning to remote work and exposing (intentionally or unintentionally) applications to the outside world. The applications discussed in this module are typically just as likely to be exposed on the external network as the internal network. These applications can serve as a foothold into the internal environment during an external assessment or as a foothold, lateral movement, or additional issue to report to our client during an internal assessment.

The state of application security in 2021 was a research survey commissioned by Barracuda to gather information from application security-related decision-makers. The survey includes responses from 750 decision-makers in companies with 500 or more employees across the globe. The survey findings were astounding: 72% of respondents stated that their organization suffered at least one breach due to an application vulnerability, 32% suffered two breaches, and 14% suffered three. The organizations polled broke down their challenges as follows: bot attacks (43%), software supply chain attacks (39%), vulnerability detection (38%), and securing APIs (37%). This module will focus on known vulnerabilities and misconfigurations in open-source and commercial applications (free versions demoed in this module), which make up a large percentage of the successful attacks that organizations face regularly.


Application Data

This module will study several common applications in-depth while briefly covering some other less common (but still seen often) ones. Just some of the categories of applications we may come across during a given assessment that we may be able to leverage to gain a foothold or gain access to sensitive data include:

Category Applications
Web Content Management Joomla, Drupal, WordPress, DotNetNuke, etc.
Application Servers Apache Tomcat, Phusion Passenger, Oracle WebLogic, IBM WebSphere, etc.
Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) Splunk, Trustwave, LogRhythm, etc.
Network Management PRTG Network Monitor, ManageEngine Opmanger, etc.
IT Management Nagios, Puppet, Zabbix, ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus, etc.
Software Frameworks JBoss, Axis2, etc.
Customer Service Management osTicket, Zendesk, etc.
Search Engines Elasticsearch, Apache Solr, etc.
Software Configuration Management Atlassian JIRA, GitHub, GitLab, Bugzilla, Bugsnag, Bitbucket, etc.
Software Development Tools Jenkins, Atlassian Confluence, phpMyAdmin, etc.
Enterprise Application Integration Oracle Fusion Middleware, BizTalk Server, Apache ActiveMQ, etc.

As you can see browsing the links for each category above, there are thousands of applications that we may encounter during a given assessment. Many of these suffer from publicly known exploits or have functionality that can be abused to gain remote code execution, steal credentials, or access sensitive information with or without valid credentials. This module will cover the most prevalent applications that we repeatedly see during internal and external assessments.

Let's take a look at the Enlyft website. We can see, for example, they were able to gather data on over 3.7 million companies that are using WordPress which makes up nearly 70% of the market share worldwide for Web Content Management applications for all companies polled. For SIEM tool Splunk was used by 22,174 of the companies surveyed and represented nearly 30% of the market share for SIEM tools. While the remaining applications we will cover represent a much smaller market share for their respective category, I still see these often, and the skills learned here can be applied to many different situations.

While working through the section examples, questions, and skills assessments, make a concerted effort to learn how these applications work and why specific vulnerabilities and misconfigurations exist rather than just reproducing the examples to move swiftly through the module. These skills will benefit you greatly and could likely help you identify attack paths in different applications that you encounter during an assessment for the first time. I still encounter applications that I have only seen a few times or never before, and approaching them with this mindset has often helped me pull off attacks or find a way to abuse built-in functionality.


A Quick Story

For example, during one external penetration test, I encountered the Nexus Repository OSS application from Sonatype, which I had never seen before. I quickly found that the default admin credentials of admin:admin123 for that version had not been changed, and I was able to log in and poke around the admin functionality. In this version, I leveraged the API as an authenticated user to gain remote code execution on the system. I encountered this application on another assessment, was able to log in with default credentials yet again. This time was able to abuse the Tasks functionality (which was disabled the first time I encountered this application) and write a quick Groovy script in Java syntax to execute a script and gain remote code execution. This is similar to how we'll abuse the Jenkins script console later in this module. I have encountered many other applications, such as OpManager from ManageEngine that allow you to run a script as the user that the application is running under (usually the powerful NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM account) and gain a foothold. We should never overlook applications during an internal and external assessment as they may be our only way "in" in a relatively well-maintained environment.


Common Applications

I typically run into at least one of the applications below, which we will cover in-depth throughout the module sections. While we cannot cover every possible application that we may encounter, the skills taught in this module will prepare us to approach all applications with a critical eye and assess them for public vulnerabilities and misconfigurations.

Application Description
WordPress WordPress is an open-source Content Management System (CMS) that can be used for multiple purposes. It's often used to host blogs and forums. WordPress is highly customizable as well as SEO friendly, which makes it popular among companies. However, its customizability and extensible nature make it prone to vulnerabilities through third-party themes and plugins. WordPress is written in PHP and usually runs on Apache with MySQL as the backend.
Drupal Drupal is another open-source CMS that is popular among companies and developers. Drupal is written in PHP and supports using MySQL or PostgreSQL for the backend. Additionally, SQLite can be used if there's no DBMS installed. Like WordPress, Drupal allows users to enhance their websites through the use of themes and modules.
Joomla Joomla is yet another open-source CMS written in PHP that typically uses MySQL but can be made to run with PostgreSQL or SQLite. Joomla can be used for blogs, discussion forums, e-commerce, and more. Joomla can be customized heavily with themes and extensions and is estimated to be the third most used CMS on the internet after WordPress and Shopify.
Tomcat Apache Tomcat is an open-source web server that hosts applications written in Java. Tomcat was initially designed to run Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP) scripts. However, its popularity increased with Java-based frameworks and is now widely used by frameworks such as Spring and tools such as Gradle.
Jenkins Jenkins is an open-source automation server written in Java that helps developers build and test their software projects continuously. It is a server-based system that runs in servlet containers such as Tomcat. Over the years, researchers have uncovered various vulnerabilities in Jenkins, including some that allow for remote code execution without requiring authentication.
Splunk Splunk is a log analytics tool used to gather, analyze and visualize data. Though not originally intended to be a SIEM tool, Splunk is often used for security monitoring and business analytics. Splunk deployments are often used to house sensitive data and could provide a wealth of information for an attacker if compromised. Historically, Splunk has not suffered from a considerable amount of known vulnerabilities aside from an information disclosure vulnerability (CVE-2018-11409), and an authenticated remote code execution vulnerability in very old versions (CVE-2011-4642).
PRTG Network Monitor PRTG Network Monitor is an agentless network monitoring system that can be used to monitor metrics such as uptime, bandwidth usage, and more from a variety of devices such as routers, switches, servers, etc. It utilizes an auto-discovery mode to scan a network and then leverages protocols such as ICMP, WMI, SNMP, and NetFlow to communicate with and gather data from discovered devices. PRTG is written in Delphi.
osTicket osTicket is a widely-used open-source support ticketing system. It can be used to manage customer service tickets received via email, phone, and the web interface. osTicket is written in PHP and can run on Apache or IIS with MySQL as the backend.
GitLab GitLab is an open-source software development platform with a Git repository manager, version control, issue tracking, code review, continuous integration and deployment, and more. It was originally written in Ruby but now utilizes Ruby on Rails, Go, and Vue.js. GitLab offers both community (free) and enterprises versions of the software.

Module Targets

Throughout the module sections, we will refer to URLs such as http://app.inlanefreight.local. To simulate a large, realistic environment with multiple webservers, we utilize Vhosts to house the web applications. Since these Vhosts all map to a different directory on the same host, we have to make manual entries in our /etc/hosts file on the Pwnbox or local attack VM to interact with the lab. This needs to be done for any examples that show scans or screenshots using a FQDN. Sections such as Splunk that only use the spawned target's IP address will not require a hosts file entry, and you can just interact with the spawned IP address and associated port.

To do this quickly, we could run the following:

[!bash!]$ IP=10.129.42.195
[!bash!]$ printf "%s\t%s\n\n" "$IP" "app.inlanefreight.local dev.inlanefreight.local blog.inlanefreight.local" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts

After this command, our /etc/hosts file would look like the following (on a newly spawned Pwnbox):

[!bash!]$ cat /etc/hosts

# Your system has configured 'manage_etc_hosts' as True.
# As a result, if you wish for changes to this file to persist
# then you will need to either
# a.) make changes to the master file in /etc/cloud/templates/hosts.debian.tmpl
# b.) change or remove the value of 'manage_etc_hosts' in
#     /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg or cloud-config from user-data
#
127.0.1.1 htb-9zftpkslke.htb-cloud.com htb-9zftpkslke
127.0.0.1 localhost

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

10.129.42.195	app.inlanefreight.local dev.inlanefreight.local blog.inlanefreight.local

You may wish to write your own script or edit the hosts file by hand, which is fine.

If you spawn a target during a section and cannot access it directly via the IP be sure to check your hosts file and update any entries!

Module exercises that require vhosts will display a list that you can use to edit your hosts file after spawning the target VM at the bottom of the respective section.

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Relevant Paths

This module progresses you towards the following Paths

Penetration Tester

The Penetration Tester Job Role Path is for newcomers to information security who aspire to become professional penetration testers. This path covers core security assessment concepts and provides a deep understanding of the specialized tools, attack tactics, and methodology used during penetration testing. Armed with the necessary theoretical background and multiple practical exercises, students will go through all penetration testing stages, from reconnaissance and enumeration to documentation and reporting. Upon completing this job role path, you will have obtained the practical skills and mindset necessary to perform professional security assessments against enterprise-level infrastructure at an intermediate level. The Information Security Foundations skill path can be considered prerequisite knowledge to be successful while working through this job role path.

Medium Path Sections 465 Sections
Required: 1970
Reward: +450
Path Modules
Penetration Testing Process
Fundamental
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
This module teaches the penetration testing process broken down into each stage and discussed in detail. We will cover many aspects of the role of a penetration tester during a penetration test, explained and illustrated with detailed examples. The module also covers pre-engagement steps like the criteria for establishing a contract with a client for a penetration testing engagement.
Getting Started
Fundamental
Path Sections 23 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamentals of penetration testing and an introduction to Hack The Box.
Network Enumeration with Nmap
Easy
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +10
Nmap is one of the most used networking mapping and discovery tools because of its accurate results and efficiency. The tool is widely used by both offensive and defensive security practitioners. This module covers fundamentals that will be needed to use the Nmap tool for performing effective network enumeration.
Footprinting
Medium
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
This module covers techniques for footprinting the most commonly used services in almost all enterprise and business IT infrastructures. Footprinting is an essential phase of any penetration test or security audit to identify and prevent information disclosure. Using this process, we examine the individual services and attempt to obtain as much information from them as possible.
Information Gathering - Web Edition
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers techniques for identifying and analyzing an organization's web application-based attack surface and tech stack. Information gathering is an essential part of any web application penetration test, and it can be performed either passively or actively.
Vulnerability Assessment
Easy
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the concept of Vulnerability Assessments. We will review the differences between vulnerability assessments and penetration tests, how to carry out a vulnerability assessment, how to interpret the assessment results, and how to deliver an effective vulnerability assessment report.
File Transfers
Medium
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +10
During an assessment, it is very common for us to transfer files to and from a target system. This module covers file transfer techniques leveraging tools commonly available across all versions of Windows and Linux systems.
Shells & Payloads
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Gain the knowledge and skills to identify and use shells & payloads to establish a foothold on vulnerable Windows & Linux systems. This module utilizes a fictitious scenario where the learner will place themselves in the perspective of a sysadmin trying out for a position on CAT5 Security's network penetration testing team.
Using the Metasploit Framework
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
The Metasploit Framework is an open-source set of tools used for network enumeration, attacks, testing security vulnerabilities, evading detection, performing privilege escalation attacks, and performing post-exploitation.
Password Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 22 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
Passwords are still the primary method of authentication in corporate networks. If strong password policies are not in place, users will often opt for weak, easy-to-remember passwords that can often be cracked offline and used to further our access. We will encounter passwords in many forms during our assessments. We must understand the various ways they are stored, how they can be retrieved, methods to crack weak passwords, ways to use hashes that cannot be cracked, and hunting for weak/default password usage.
Attacking Common Services
Medium
Path Sections 19 Sections
Reward: +20
Organizations regularly use a standard set of services for different purposes. It is vital to conduct penetration testing activities on each service internally and externally to ensure that they are not introducing security threats. This module will cover how to enumerate each service and test it against known vulnerabilities and exploits with a standard set of tools.
Pivoting, Tunneling, and Port Forwarding
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
Once a foothold is gained during an assessment, it may be in scope to move laterally and vertically within a target network. Using one compromised machine to access another is called pivoting and allows us to access networks and resources that are not directly accessible to us through the compromised host. Port forwarding accepts the traffic on a given IP address and port and redirects it to a different IP address and port combination. Tunneling is a technique that allows us to encapsulate traffic within another protocol so that it looks like a benign traffic stream.
Active Directory Enumeration & Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 36 Sections
Reward: +20
Active Directory (AD) is the leading enterprise domain management suite, providing identity and access management, centralized domain administration, authentication, and much more. Due to the many features and complexity of AD, it presents a large attack surface that is difficult to secure properly. To be successful as infosec professionals, we must understand AD architectures and how to secure our enterprise environments. As Penetration testers, having a firm grasp of what tools, techniques, and procedures are available to us for enumerating and attacking AD environments and commonly seen AD misconfigurations is a must.
Using Web Proxies
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Web application penetration testing frameworks are an essential part of any web penetration test. This module will teach you two of the best frameworks: Burp Suite and OWASP ZAP.
Attacking Web Applications with Ffuf
Easy
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamental enumeration skills of web fuzzing and directory brute forcing using the Ffuf tool. The techniques learned in this module will help us in locating hidden pages, directories, and parameters when targeting web applications.
Login Brute Forcing
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Learn how to brute force logins for various types of services and create custom wordlists based on your target.
SQL Injection Fundamentals
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Databases are an important part of web application infrastructure and SQL (Structured Query Language) to store, retrieve, and manipulate information stored in them. SQL injection is a code injection technique used to take advantage of coding vulnerabilities and inject SQL queries via an application to bypass authentication, retrieve data from the back-end database, or achieve code execution on the underlying server.
SQLMap Essentials
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
The SQLMap Essentials module will teach you the basics of using SQLMap to discover various types of SQL Injection vulnerabilities, all the way to the advanced enumeration of databases to retrieve all data of interest.
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities are among the most common web application vulnerabilities. An XSS vulnerability may allow an attacker to execute arbitrary JavaScript code within the target's browser and result in complete web application compromise if chained together with other vulnerabilities. This module will teach you how to identify XSS vulnerabilities and exploit them.
File Inclusion
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +10
File Inclusion is a common web application vulnerability, which can be easily overlooked as part of a web application's functionality.
File Upload Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Arbitrary file uploads are among the most critical web vulnerabilities. These flaws enable attackers to upload malicious files, execute arbitrary commands on the back-end server, and even take control over the entire server and all web applications hosted on it and potentially gain access to sensitive data or cause a service disruption.
Command Injections
Medium
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +20
Command injection vulnerabilities can be leveraged to compromise a hosting server and its entire network. This module will teach you how to identify and exploit command injection vulnerabilities and how to use various filter bypassing techniques to avoid security mitigations.
Web Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers three common web vulnerabilities, HTTP Verb Tampering, IDOR, and XXE, each of which can have a significant impact on a company's systems. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of them through various methods.
Attacking Common Applications
Medium
Path Sections 33 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
Penetration Testers can come across various applications, such as Content Management Systems, custom web applications, internal portals used by developers and sysadmins, and more. It's common to find the same applications across many different environments. While an application may not be vulnerable in one environment, it may be misconfigured or unpatched in the next. It is important as an assessor to have a firm grasp of enumerating and attacking the common applications discussed in this module. This knowledge will help when encountering other types of applications during assessments.
Linux Privilege Escalation
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Privilege escalation is a crucial phase during any security assessment. During this phase, we attempt to gain access to additional users, hosts, and resources to move closer to the assessment's overall goal. There are many ways to escalate privileges. This module aims to cover the most common methods emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter in a client environment. The techniques covered in this module are not an exhaustive list of all possibilities and aim to avoid extreme "edge-case" tactics that may be seen in a Capture the Flag (CTF) exercise.
Windows Privilege Escalation
Medium
Path Sections 31 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
After gaining a foothold, elevating our privileges will provide more options for persistence and may reveal information stored locally that can further our access in the environment. Enumeration is the key to privilege escalation. When you gain initial shell access to the host, it is important to gain situational awareness and uncover details relating to the OS version, patch level, any installed software, our current privileges, group memberships, and more. Windows presents an enormous attack surface and, being that most companies run Windows hosts in some way, we will more often than not find ourselves gaining access to Windows machines during our assessments. This covers common methods while emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter during an assessment. There are many additional "edge-case" possibilities not covered in this module. We will cover both modern and legacy Windows Server and Desktop versions that may be present in a client environment.
Documentation & Reporting
Easy
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +20
Proper documentation is paramount during any engagement. The end goal of a technical assessment is the report deliverable which will often be presented to a broad audience within the target organization. We must take detailed notes and be very organized in our documentation, which will help us in the event of an incident during the assessment. This will also help ensure that our reports contain enough detail to illustrate the impact of our findings properly.
Attacking Enterprise Networks
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
We often encounter large and complex networks during our assessments. We must be comfortable approaching an internal or external network, regardless of the size, and be able to work through each phase of the penetration testing process to reach our goal. This module will guide students through a simulated penetration testing engagement, from start to finish, with an emphasis on hands-on testing steps that are directly applicable to real-world engagements.

CREST CPSA/CRT Preparation

This is a skill path to prepare you for CREST's CPSA and CRT exams. The following CPSA/CRT syllabus areas (IDs) are covered: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B4, B5, B6, B8, B9, B13, B14, C1, C2, C3, C4, D1, D2, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E9, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, G1, G2, G4, G5, G6, G7, G8, G9, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H8, H9, H10, H11, H12, H13, I1, I2, I3, I6, J1, J2, J3. Take your time to complete all related sections and when you are ready you can book your CREST exam through the following links. CREST CPSA: https://www.crest-approved.org/certification-careers/crest-certifications/crest-practitioner-security-analyst/. CREST CRT: https://www.crest-approved.org/certification-careers/crest-certifications/crest-registered-penetration-tester/.

Medium Path Sections 658 Sections
Required: 2980
Reward: +700
Path Modules
Introduction to Networking
Fundamental
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
As an information security professional, a firm grasp of networking fundamentals and the required components is necessary. Without a strong foundation in networking, it will be tough to progress in any area of information security. Understanding how a network is structured and how the communication between the individual hosts and servers takes place using the various protocols allows us to understand the entire network structure and its network traffic in detail and how different communication standards are handled. This knowledge is essential to create our tools and to interact with the protocols.
Web Requests
Fundamental
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the topic of HTTP web requests and how different web applications utilize them to communicate with their backends.
Introduction to Web Applications
Fundamental
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
In the Introduction to Web Applications module, you will learn all of the basics of how web applications work and begin to look at them from an information security perspective.
Linux Fundamentals
Fundamental
Path Sections 30 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Linux operating system and shell.
Windows Fundamentals
Fundamental
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Windows operating system.
Introduction to Windows Command Line
Easy
Path Sections 23 Sections
Reward: +10
As administrators and Pentesters, we may not always be able to utilize a graphical user interface for the actions we need to perform. Introduction to Windows Command Line aims to introduce students to the wide range of uses for Command Prompt and PowerShell within a Windows environment. We will cover basic usage of both key executables for administration, useful PowerShell cmdlets and modules, and different ways to leverage these tools to our benefit.
Intro to Network Traffic Analysis
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
Network traffic analysis is used by security teams to monitor network activity and look for anomalies that could indicate security and operational issues. Offensive security practitioners can use network traffic analysis to search for sensitive data such as credentials, hidden applications, reachable network segments, or other potentially sensitive information "on the wire." Network traffic analysis has many uses for attackers and defenders alike.
Penetration Testing Process
Fundamental
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
This module teaches the penetration testing process broken down into each stage and discussed in detail. We will cover many aspects of the role of a penetration tester during a penetration test, explained and illustrated with detailed examples. The module also covers pre-engagement steps like the criteria for establishing a contract with a client for a penetration testing engagement.
Network Enumeration with Nmap
Easy
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +10
Nmap is one of the most used networking mapping and discovery tools because of its accurate results and efficiency. The tool is widely used by both offensive and defensive security practitioners. This module covers fundamentals that will be needed to use the Nmap tool for performing effective network enumeration.
Footprinting
Medium
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
This module covers techniques for footprinting the most commonly used services in almost all enterprise and business IT infrastructures. Footprinting is an essential phase of any penetration test or security audit to identify and prevent information disclosure. Using this process, we examine the individual services and attempt to obtain as much information from them as possible.
Information Gathering - Web Edition
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers techniques for identifying and analyzing an organization's web application-based attack surface and tech stack. Information gathering is an essential part of any web application penetration test, and it can be performed either passively or actively.
Vulnerability Assessment
Easy
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the concept of Vulnerability Assessments. We will review the differences between vulnerability assessments and penetration tests, how to carry out a vulnerability assessment, how to interpret the assessment results, and how to deliver an effective vulnerability assessment report.
File Transfers
Medium
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +10
During an assessment, it is very common for us to transfer files to and from a target system. This module covers file transfer techniques leveraging tools commonly available across all versions of Windows and Linux systems.
Shells & Payloads
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Gain the knowledge and skills to identify and use shells & payloads to establish a foothold on vulnerable Windows & Linux systems. This module utilizes a fictitious scenario where the learner will place themselves in the perspective of a sysadmin trying out for a position on CAT5 Security's network penetration testing team.
Using the Metasploit Framework
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
The Metasploit Framework is an open-source set of tools used for network enumeration, attacks, testing security vulnerabilities, evading detection, performing privilege escalation attacks, and performing post-exploitation.
Password Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 22 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
Passwords are still the primary method of authentication in corporate networks. If strong password policies are not in place, users will often opt for weak, easy-to-remember passwords that can often be cracked offline and used to further our access. We will encounter passwords in many forms during our assessments. We must understand the various ways they are stored, how they can be retrieved, methods to crack weak passwords, ways to use hashes that cannot be cracked, and hunting for weak/default password usage.
Attacking Common Services
Medium
Path Sections 19 Sections
Reward: +20
Organizations regularly use a standard set of services for different purposes. It is vital to conduct penetration testing activities on each service internally and externally to ensure that they are not introducing security threats. This module will cover how to enumerate each service and test it against known vulnerabilities and exploits with a standard set of tools.
Cracking Passwords with Hashcat
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers the fundamentals of password cracking using the Hashcat tool.
Introduction to Active Directory
Fundamental
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +10
Active Directory (AD) is present in the majority of corporate environments. Due to its many features and complexity, it presents a vast attack surface. To be successful as penetration testers and information security professionals, we must have a firm understanding of Active Directory fundamentals, AD structures, functionality, common AD flaws, misconfigurations, and defensive measures.
Pivoting, Tunneling, and Port Forwarding
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
Once a foothold is gained during an assessment, it may be in scope to move laterally and vertically within a target network. Using one compromised machine to access another is called pivoting and allows us to access networks and resources that are not directly accessible to us through the compromised host. Port forwarding accepts the traffic on a given IP address and port and redirects it to a different IP address and port combination. Tunneling is a technique that allows us to encapsulate traffic within another protocol so that it looks like a benign traffic stream.
Active Directory Enumeration & Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 36 Sections
Reward: +20
Active Directory (AD) is the leading enterprise domain management suite, providing identity and access management, centralized domain administration, authentication, and much more. Due to the many features and complexity of AD, it presents a large attack surface that is difficult to secure properly. To be successful as infosec professionals, we must understand AD architectures and how to secure our enterprise environments. As Penetration testers, having a firm grasp of what tools, techniques, and procedures are available to us for enumerating and attacking AD environments and commonly seen AD misconfigurations is a must.
Linux Privilege Escalation
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Privilege escalation is a crucial phase during any security assessment. During this phase, we attempt to gain access to additional users, hosts, and resources to move closer to the assessment's overall goal. There are many ways to escalate privileges. This module aims to cover the most common methods emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter in a client environment. The techniques covered in this module are not an exhaustive list of all possibilities and aim to avoid extreme "edge-case" tactics that may be seen in a Capture the Flag (CTF) exercise.
Windows Privilege Escalation
Medium
Path Sections 31 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
After gaining a foothold, elevating our privileges will provide more options for persistence and may reveal information stored locally that can further our access in the environment. Enumeration is the key to privilege escalation. When you gain initial shell access to the host, it is important to gain situational awareness and uncover details relating to the OS version, patch level, any installed software, our current privileges, group memberships, and more. Windows presents an enormous attack surface and, being that most companies run Windows hosts in some way, we will more often than not find ourselves gaining access to Windows machines during our assessments. This covers common methods while emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter during an assessment. There are many additional "edge-case" possibilities not covered in this module. We will cover both modern and legacy Windows Server and Desktop versions that may be present in a client environment.
Using Web Proxies
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Web application penetration testing frameworks are an essential part of any web penetration test. This module will teach you two of the best frameworks: Burp Suite and OWASP ZAP.
Attacking Web Applications with Ffuf
Easy
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamental enumeration skills of web fuzzing and directory brute forcing using the Ffuf tool. The techniques learned in this module will help us in locating hidden pages, directories, and parameters when targeting web applications.
Login Brute Forcing
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Learn how to brute force logins for various types of services and create custom wordlists based on your target.
HTTPs/TLS Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers details on Transport Layer Security (TLS) and how it helps to make HTTP secure with the widely used HTTPS. That includes how TLS works, how TLS sessions are established, common TLS misconfigurations, as well as famous attacks on TLS. We will discuss how to identify, exploit, and prevent TLS attacks.
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities are among the most common web application vulnerabilities. An XSS vulnerability may allow an attacker to execute arbitrary JavaScript code within the target's browser and result in complete web application compromise if chained together with other vulnerabilities. This module will teach you how to identify XSS vulnerabilities and exploit them.
Session Security
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
Maintaining and keeping track of a user's session is an integral part of web applications. It is an area that requires extensive testing to ensure it is set up robustly and securely. This module covers the most common attacks and vulnerabilities that can affect web application sessions, such as Session Hijacking, Session Fixation, Cross-Site Request Forgery, Cross-Site Scripting, and Open Redirects.
SQL Injection Fundamentals
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Databases are an important part of web application infrastructure and SQL (Structured Query Language) to store, retrieve, and manipulate information stored in them. SQL injection is a code injection technique used to take advantage of coding vulnerabilities and inject SQL queries via an application to bypass authentication, retrieve data from the back-end database, or achieve code execution on the underlying server.
SQLMap Essentials
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
The SQLMap Essentials module will teach you the basics of using SQLMap to discover various types of SQL Injection vulnerabilities, all the way to the advanced enumeration of databases to retrieve all data of interest.
File Inclusion
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +10
File Inclusion is a common web application vulnerability, which can be easily overlooked as part of a web application's functionality.
File Upload Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Arbitrary file uploads are among the most critical web vulnerabilities. These flaws enable attackers to upload malicious files, execute arbitrary commands on the back-end server, and even take control over the entire server and all web applications hosted on it and potentially gain access to sensitive data or cause a service disruption.
Command Injections
Medium
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +20
Command injection vulnerabilities can be leveraged to compromise a hosting server and its entire network. This module will teach you how to identify and exploit command injection vulnerabilities and how to use various filter bypassing techniques to avoid security mitigations.
Broken Authentication
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
Authentication is probably the most straightforward and prevalent measure used to secure access to resources, and it's the first line of defense against unauthorized access. Broken authentication is currently listed as #7 on the 2021 OWASP Top 10 Web Application Security Risks, falling under the broader category of Identification and Authentication failures. A vulnerability or misconfiguration at the authentication stage can devastatingly impact an application's overall security.
Web Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers three common web vulnerabilities, HTTP Verb Tampering, IDOR, and XXE, each of which can have a significant impact on a company's systems. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of them through various methods.
Attacking Common Applications
Medium
Path Sections 33 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
Penetration Testers can come across various applications, such as Content Management Systems, custom web applications, internal portals used by developers and sysadmins, and more. It's common to find the same applications across many different environments. While an application may not be vulnerable in one environment, it may be misconfigured or unpatched in the next. It is important as an assessor to have a firm grasp of enumerating and attacking the common applications discussed in this module. This knowledge will help when encountering other types of applications during assessments.
Web Service & API Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +20
Web services and APIs are frequently exposed to provide certain functionalities in a programmatic way between heterogeneous devices and software components. Both web services and APIs can assist in integrating different applications or facilitate separation within a given application. This module covers how to identify the functionality a web service or API offers and exploit any security-related inefficiencies.
Hacking WordPress
Easy
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +20
WordPress is an open-source Content Management System (CMS) that can be used for multiple purposes.
Documentation & Reporting
Easy
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +20
Proper documentation is paramount during any engagement. The end goal of a technical assessment is the report deliverable which will often be presented to a broad audience within the target organization. We must take detailed notes and be very organized in our documentation, which will help us in the event of an incident during the assessment. This will also help ensure that our reports contain enough detail to illustrate the impact of our findings properly.

CREST CCT APP Preparation

This is a skill path to prepare you for CREST's CCT APP exam. The following CCT APP syllabus areas (IDs) are covered: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B4, B5, B6, B8, B9, B13, B14, C1, C2, C3, C4, D1, D2, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E9, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, G1, G2, G4, G5, G6, G7, G8, G9, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, H11, H12, H13, I1, I2, I3, I4, I5, I6, I7, I8, I9, I10, I11, I12, J1, J2, J3. Take your time to complete all related sections and when you are ready you can book your CREST exam through the following link. https://www.crest-approved.org/certification-careers/crest-certifications/crest-certified-web-application-tester/

Medium Path Sections 724 Sections
Required: 4980
Reward: +1100
Path Modules
Introduction to Networking
Fundamental
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
As an information security professional, a firm grasp of networking fundamentals and the required components is necessary. Without a strong foundation in networking, it will be tough to progress in any area of information security. Understanding how a network is structured and how the communication between the individual hosts and servers takes place using the various protocols allows us to understand the entire network structure and its network traffic in detail and how different communication standards are handled. This knowledge is essential to create our tools and to interact with the protocols.
Web Requests
Fundamental
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the topic of HTTP web requests and how different web applications utilize them to communicate with their backends.
Introduction to Web Applications
Fundamental
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
In the Introduction to Web Applications module, you will learn all of the basics of how web applications work and begin to look at them from an information security perspective.
Linux Fundamentals
Fundamental
Path Sections 30 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Linux operating system and shell.
Windows Fundamentals
Fundamental
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamentals required to work comfortably with the Windows operating system.
Introduction to Windows Command Line
Easy
Path Sections 23 Sections
Reward: +10
As administrators and Pentesters, we may not always be able to utilize a graphical user interface for the actions we need to perform. Introduction to Windows Command Line aims to introduce students to the wide range of uses for Command Prompt and PowerShell within a Windows environment. We will cover basic usage of both key executables for administration, useful PowerShell cmdlets and modules, and different ways to leverage these tools to our benefit.
Intro to Network Traffic Analysis
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
Network traffic analysis is used by security teams to monitor network activity and look for anomalies that could indicate security and operational issues. Offensive security practitioners can use network traffic analysis to search for sensitive data such as credentials, hidden applications, reachable network segments, or other potentially sensitive information "on the wire." Network traffic analysis has many uses for attackers and defenders alike.
Penetration Testing Process
Fundamental
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
This module teaches the penetration testing process broken down into each stage and discussed in detail. We will cover many aspects of the role of a penetration tester during a penetration test, explained and illustrated with detailed examples. The module also covers pre-engagement steps like the criteria for establishing a contract with a client for a penetration testing engagement.
Network Enumeration with Nmap
Easy
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +10
Nmap is one of the most used networking mapping and discovery tools because of its accurate results and efficiency. The tool is widely used by both offensive and defensive security practitioners. This module covers fundamentals that will be needed to use the Nmap tool for performing effective network enumeration.
Footprinting
Medium
Path Sections 21 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
This module covers techniques for footprinting the most commonly used services in almost all enterprise and business IT infrastructures. Footprinting is an essential phase of any penetration test or security audit to identify and prevent information disclosure. Using this process, we examine the individual services and attempt to obtain as much information from them as possible.
Information Gathering - Web Edition
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers techniques for identifying and analyzing an organization's web application-based attack surface and tech stack. Information gathering is an essential part of any web application penetration test, and it can be performed either passively or actively.
Vulnerability Assessment
Easy
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
This module introduces the concept of Vulnerability Assessments. We will review the differences between vulnerability assessments and penetration tests, how to carry out a vulnerability assessment, how to interpret the assessment results, and how to deliver an effective vulnerability assessment report.
File Transfers
Medium
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +10
During an assessment, it is very common for us to transfer files to and from a target system. This module covers file transfer techniques leveraging tools commonly available across all versions of Windows and Linux systems.
Shells & Payloads
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Gain the knowledge and skills to identify and use shells & payloads to establish a foothold on vulnerable Windows & Linux systems. This module utilizes a fictitious scenario where the learner will place themselves in the perspective of a sysadmin trying out for a position on CAT5 Security's network penetration testing team.
Using the Metasploit Framework
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +10
The Metasploit Framework is an open-source set of tools used for network enumeration, attacks, testing security vulnerabilities, evading detection, performing privilege escalation attacks, and performing post-exploitation.
Password Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 22 Sections
Reward: +10 UPDATED
Passwords are still the primary method of authentication in corporate networks. If strong password policies are not in place, users will often opt for weak, easy-to-remember passwords that can often be cracked offline and used to further our access. We will encounter passwords in many forms during our assessments. We must understand the various ways they are stored, how they can be retrieved, methods to crack weak passwords, ways to use hashes that cannot be cracked, and hunting for weak/default password usage.
Attacking Common Services
Medium
Path Sections 19 Sections
Reward: +20
Organizations regularly use a standard set of services for different purposes. It is vital to conduct penetration testing activities on each service internally and externally to ensure that they are not introducing security threats. This module will cover how to enumerate each service and test it against known vulnerabilities and exploits with a standard set of tools.
Cracking Passwords with Hashcat
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers the fundamentals of password cracking using the Hashcat tool.
Introduction to Active Directory
Fundamental
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +10
Active Directory (AD) is present in the majority of corporate environments. Due to its many features and complexity, it presents a vast attack surface. To be successful as penetration testers and information security professionals, we must have a firm understanding of Active Directory fundamentals, AD structures, functionality, common AD flaws, misconfigurations, and defensive measures.
Pivoting, Tunneling, and Port Forwarding
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
Once a foothold is gained during an assessment, it may be in scope to move laterally and vertically within a target network. Using one compromised machine to access another is called pivoting and allows us to access networks and resources that are not directly accessible to us through the compromised host. Port forwarding accepts the traffic on a given IP address and port and redirects it to a different IP address and port combination. Tunneling is a technique that allows us to encapsulate traffic within another protocol so that it looks like a benign traffic stream.
Active Directory Enumeration & Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 36 Sections
Reward: +20
Active Directory (AD) is the leading enterprise domain management suite, providing identity and access management, centralized domain administration, authentication, and much more. Due to the many features and complexity of AD, it presents a large attack surface that is difficult to secure properly. To be successful as infosec professionals, we must understand AD architectures and how to secure our enterprise environments. As Penetration testers, having a firm grasp of what tools, techniques, and procedures are available to us for enumerating and attacking AD environments and commonly seen AD misconfigurations is a must.
Linux Privilege Escalation
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Privilege escalation is a crucial phase during any security assessment. During this phase, we attempt to gain access to additional users, hosts, and resources to move closer to the assessment's overall goal. There are many ways to escalate privileges. This module aims to cover the most common methods emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter in a client environment. The techniques covered in this module are not an exhaustive list of all possibilities and aim to avoid extreme "edge-case" tactics that may be seen in a Capture the Flag (CTF) exercise.
Windows Privilege Escalation
Medium
Path Sections 31 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
After gaining a foothold, elevating our privileges will provide more options for persistence and may reveal information stored locally that can further our access in the environment. Enumeration is the key to privilege escalation. When you gain initial shell access to the host, it is important to gain situational awareness and uncover details relating to the OS version, patch level, any installed software, our current privileges, group memberships, and more. Windows presents an enormous attack surface and, being that most companies run Windows hosts in some way, we will more often than not find ourselves gaining access to Windows machines during our assessments. This covers common methods while emphasizing real-world misconfigurations and flaws that we may encounter during an assessment. There are many additional "edge-case" possibilities not covered in this module. We will cover both modern and legacy Windows Server and Desktop versions that may be present in a client environment.
Using Web Proxies
Easy
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +20
Web application penetration testing frameworks are an essential part of any web penetration test. This module will teach you two of the best frameworks: Burp Suite and OWASP ZAP.
Attacking Web Applications with Ffuf
Easy
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +10
This module covers the fundamental enumeration skills of web fuzzing and directory brute forcing using the Ffuf tool. The techniques learned in this module will help us in locating hidden pages, directories, and parameters when targeting web applications.
Login Brute Forcing
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Learn how to brute force logins for various types of services and create custom wordlists based on your target.
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Easy
Path Sections 10 Sections
Reward: +20
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities are among the most common web application vulnerabilities. An XSS vulnerability may allow an attacker to execute arbitrary JavaScript code within the target's browser and result in complete web application compromise if chained together with other vulnerabilities. This module will teach you how to identify XSS vulnerabilities and exploit them.
Session Security
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
Maintaining and keeping track of a user's session is an integral part of web applications. It is an area that requires extensive testing to ensure it is set up robustly and securely. This module covers the most common attacks and vulnerabilities that can affect web application sessions, such as Session Hijacking, Session Fixation, Cross-Site Request Forgery, Cross-Site Scripting, and Open Redirects.
SQL Injection Fundamentals
Medium
Path Sections 17 Sections
Reward: +10
Databases are an important part of web application infrastructure and SQL (Structured Query Language) to store, retrieve, and manipulate information stored in them. SQL injection is a code injection technique used to take advantage of coding vulnerabilities and inject SQL queries via an application to bypass authentication, retrieve data from the back-end database, or achieve code execution on the underlying server.
SQLMap Essentials
Easy
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
The SQLMap Essentials module will teach you the basics of using SQLMap to discover various types of SQL Injection vulnerabilities, all the way to the advanced enumeration of databases to retrieve all data of interest.
Blind SQL Injection
Hard
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +100
In this module, we cover blind SQL injection attacks and MSSQL-specific attacks.
Advanced SQL Injections
Hard
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers advanced SQL injection techniques with a focus on white-box testing, Java/Spring and PostgreSQL.
File Inclusion
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +10
File Inclusion is a common web application vulnerability, which can be easily overlooked as part of a web application's functionality.
File Upload Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 11 Sections
Reward: +20
Arbitrary file uploads are among the most critical web vulnerabilities. These flaws enable attackers to upload malicious files, execute arbitrary commands on the back-end server, and even take control over the entire server and all web applications hosted on it and potentially gain access to sensitive data or cause a service disruption.
Command Injections
Medium
Path Sections 12 Sections
Reward: +20
Command injection vulnerabilities can be leveraged to compromise a hosting server and its entire network. This module will teach you how to identify and exploit command injection vulnerabilities and how to use various filter bypassing techniques to avoid security mitigations.
Broken Authentication
Medium
Path Sections 14 Sections
Reward: +20
Authentication is probably the most straightforward and prevalent measure used to secure access to resources, and it's the first line of defense against unauthorized access. Broken authentication is currently listed as #7 on the 2021 OWASP Top 10 Web Application Security Risks, falling under the broader category of Identification and Authentication failures. A vulnerability or misconfiguration at the authentication stage can devastatingly impact an application's overall security.
Web Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +20
This module covers three common web vulnerabilities, HTTP Verb Tampering, IDOR, and XXE, each of which can have a significant impact on a company's systems. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of them through various methods.
HTTPs/TLS Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 15 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers details on Transport Layer Security (TLS) and how it helps to make HTTP secure with the widely used HTTPS. That includes how TLS works, how TLS sessions are established, common TLS misconfigurations, as well as famous attacks on TLS. We will discuss how to identify, exploit, and prevent TLS attacks.
HTTP Attacks
Hard
Path Sections 18 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers three HTTP vulnerabilities: CRLF Injection, HTTP Request Smuggling, and HTTP/2 Downgrading. These vulnerabilities can arise on the HTTP level in real-world deployment settings utilizing intermediary systems such as reverse proxies in front of the web server. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of these vulnerabilities.
Abusing HTTP Misconfigurations
Hard
Path Sections 20 Sections
Reward: +100
This module covers three common HTTP vulnerabilities: Web Cache Poisoning, Host Header Vulnerabilities, and Session Puzzling or Session Variable Overloading. These vulnerabilities can arise on the HTTP level due to web server misconfigurations, other systems that have to be considered during real-world deployment such as web caches, or coding mistakes in the web application. We will cover how to identify, exploit, and prevent each of these vulnerabilities.
Attacking Common Applications
Medium
Path Sections 33 Sections
Reward: +20 UPDATED
Penetration Testers can come across various applications, such as Content Management Systems, custom web applications, internal portals used by developers and sysadmins, and more. It's common to find the same applications across many different environments. While an application may not be vulnerable in one environment, it may be misconfigured or unpatched in the next. It is important as an assessor to have a firm grasp of enumerating and attacking the common applications discussed in this module. This knowledge will help when encountering other types of applications during assessments.
Web Service & API Attacks
Medium
Path Sections 13 Sections
Reward: +20
Web services and APIs are frequently exposed to provide certain functionalities in a programmatic way between heterogeneous devices and software components. Both web services and APIs can assist in integrating different applications or facilitate separation within a given application. This module covers how to identify the functionality a web service or API offers and exploit any security-related inefficiencies.
Hacking WordPress
Easy
Path Sections 16 Sections
Reward: +20
WordPress is an open-source Content Management System (CMS) that can be used for multiple purposes.
Documentation & Reporting
Easy
Path Sections 8 Sections
Reward: +20
Proper documentation is paramount during any engagement. The end goal of a technical assessment is the report deliverable which will often be presented to a broad audience within the target organization. We must take detailed notes and be very organized in our documentation, which will help us in the event of an incident during the assessment. This will also help ensure that our reports contain enough detail to illustrate the impact of our findings properly.