This module covers a wide variety of techniques that can be utilized to escalate privileges on Linux systems. Privilege escalation is an essential part of a penetration test or red team assessment. Having a deep understanding of the Linux operating system, strong enumeration skills, and knowledge of many local privilege escalation techniques can make or break an assessment and set us apart from others in the field.
In this module, we will cover:
- Enumerating a Linux system
- Kernel exploits
- Exploiting vulnerable services
- Abusing misconfigurations and permissions issues
- Hunting for credentials
- Shared object hijacking and leveraging shared libraries
- Taking advantage of a privileged group membership
- One-off context-dependent techniques
- Linux security hardening best practices
CREST CPSA/CRT-related Sections:
- All sections
This module is broken down into sections with accompanying hands-on exercises to practice each of the tactics and techniques we cover. The module ends with a practical hands-on skills assessment to gauge your understanding of the various topic areas.
As you work through the module, you will see example commands and command output for the various topics introduced. It is worth reproducing as many of these examples as possible to reinforce further the concepts introduced in each section. You can do this in the target host provided in the interactive sections or your own virtual machine.
You can start and stop the module at any time and pick up where you left off. There is no time limit or "grading," but you must complete all of the exercises and the skills assessment to receive the maximum number of cubes and have this module marked as complete in any paths you have chosen.
The module is classified as "Easy" but assumes a working knowledge of the Linux command line and an understanding of information security fundamentals.
A firm grasp of the following modules can be considered prerequisites for successful completion of this module:
- Introduction to Networking
- Linux Fundamentals
Introduction to Linux Privilege Escalation
The root account on Linux systems provides full administrative level access to the operating system. During an assessment, you may gain a low-privileged shell on a Linux host and need to perform privilege escalation to the root account. Fully compromising the host would allow us to capture traffic and access sensitive files, which may be used to further access within the environment. Additionally, if the Linux machine is domain joined, we can gain the NTLM hash and begin enumerating and attacking Active Directory.
Enumeration is the key to privilege escalation. Several helper scripts (such as LinEnum) exist to assist with enumeration. Still, it is also important to understand what pieces of information to look for and to be able to perform your enumeration manually. When you gain initial shell access to the host, it is important to check several key details.
OS Version: Knowing the distribution (Ubuntu, Debian, FreeBSD, Fedora, SUSE, Red Hat, CentOS, etc.) will give you an idea of the types of tools that may be available. This would also identify the operating system version, for which there may be public exploits available.
Kernel Version: As with the OS version, there may be public exploits that target a vulnerability in a specific kernel version. Kernel exploits can cause system instability or even a complete crash. Be careful running these against any production system, and make sure you fully understand the exploit and possible ramifications before running one.
Running Services: Knowing what services are running on the host is important, especially those running as root. A misconfigured or vulnerable service running as root can be an easy win for privilege escalation. Flaws have been discovered in many common services such as Nagios, Exim, Samba, ProFTPd, etc. Public exploit PoCs exist for many of them, such as CVE-2016-9566, a local privilege escalation flaw in Nagios Core < 4.2.4.
List Current Processes
[!bash!]$ ps aux | grep root root 1 1.3 0.1 37656 5664 ? Ss 23:26 0:01 /sbin/init root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [kthreadd] root 3 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [ksoftirqd/0] root 4 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [kworker/0:0] root 5 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S< 23:26 0:00 [kworker/0:0H] root 6 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [kworker/u8:0] root 7 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [rcu_sched] root 8 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [rcu_bh] root 9 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S 23:26 0:00 [migration/0] <SNIP>
Installed Packages and Versions: Like running services, it is important to check for any out-of-date or vulnerable packages that may be easily leveraged for privilege escalation. An example is Screen, which is a common terminal multiplexer (similar to tmux). It allows you to start a session and open many windows or virtual terminals instead of opening multiple terminal sessions. Screen version 4.05.00 suffers from a privilege escalation vulnerability that can be easily leveraged to escalate privileges.
Logged in Users: Knowing which other users are logged into the system and what they are doing can give greater into possible local lateral movement and privilege escalation paths.
List Current Processes
[!bash!]$ ps au USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND root 1256 0.0 0.1 65832 3364 tty1 Ss 23:26 0:00 /bin/login -- cliff.moore 1322 0.0 0.1 22600 5160 tty1 S 23:26 0:00 -bash shared 1367 0.0 0.1 22568 5116 pts/0 Ss 23:27 0:00 -bash root 1384 0.0 0.1 52700 3812 tty1 S 23:29 0:00 sudo su root 1385 0.0 0.1 52284 3448 tty1 S 23:29 0:00 su root 1386 0.0 0.1 21224 3764 tty1 S+ 23:29 0:00 bash shared 1397 0.0 0.1 37364 3428 pts/0 R+ 23:30 0:00 ps au
User Home Directories: Are other user's home directories accessible? User home folders may also contain SSH keys that can be used to access other systems or scripts and configuration files containing credentials. It is not uncommon to find files containing credentials that can be leveraged to access other systems or even gain entry into the Active Directory environment.
Home Directory Contents
[!bash!]$ ls /home backupsvc bob.jones cliff.moore logger mrb3n shared stacey.jenkins
We can check individual user directories and check to see if files such as the
.bash_history file are readable and contain any interesting commands, look for configuration files, and check to see if we can obtain copies of a user's SSH keys.
User's Home Directory Contents
[!bash!]$ ls -la /home/stacey.jenkins/ total 32 drwxr-xr-x 3 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 4096 Aug 30 23:37 . drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Aug 30 23:33 .. -rw------- 1 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 41 Aug 30 23:35 .bash_history -rw-r--r-- 1 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 220 Sep 1 2015 .bash_logout -rw-r--r-- 1 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 3771 Sep 1 2015 .bashrc -rw-r--r-- 1 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 97 Aug 30 23:37 config.json -rw-r--r-- 1 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 655 May 16 2017 .profile drwx------ 2 stacey.jenkins stacey.jenkins 4096 Aug 30 23:35 .ssh
If you find an SSH key for your current user, this could be used to open an SSH session on the host (if SSH is exposed externally) and gain a stable and fully interactive session. SSH keys could be leveraged to access other systems within the network as well. At the minimum, check the ARP cache to see what other hosts are being accessed and cross-reference these against any useable SSH private keys.
SSH Directory Contents
[!bash!]$ ls -l ~/.ssh total 8 -rw------- 1 mrb3n mrb3n 1679 Aug 30 23:37 id_rsa -rw-r--r-- 1 mrb3n mrb3n 393 Aug 30 23:37 id_rsa.pub
It is also important to check a user's bash history, as they may be passing passwords as an argument on the command line, working with git repositories, setting up cron jobs, and more. Reviewing what the user has been doing can give you considerable insight into the type of server you land on and give a hint as to privilege escalation paths.
[!bash!]$ history 1 id 2 cd /home/cliff.moore 3 exit 4 touch backup.sh 5 tail /var/log/apache2/error.log 6 ssh [email protected] 7 history
Sudo Privileges: Can the user run any commands either as another user or as root? If you do not have credentials for the user, it may not be possible to leverage sudo permissions. However, often sudoer entries include
NOPASSWD, meaning that the user can run the specified command without being prompted for a password. Not all commands, even we can run as root, will lead to privilege escalation. It is not uncommon to gain access as a user with full sudo privileges, meaning they can run any command as root. Issuing a simple
sudo su command will immediately give you a root session.
Sudo - List User's Privileges
[!bash!]$ sudo -l Matching Defaults entries for sysadm on NIX02: env_reset, mail_badpass, secure_path=/usr/local/sbin\:/usr/local/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin\:/sbin\:/bin\:/snap/bin User sysadm may run the following commands on NIX02: (root) NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/tcpdump
Configuration Files: Configuration files can hold a wealth of information. It is worth searching through all files that end in extensions such as
.config, for usernames, passwords, and other secrets.
Readable Shadow File: If the shadow file is readable, you will be able to gather password hashes for all users who have a password set. While this does not guarantee further access, these hashes can be subjected to an offline brute-force attack to recover the cleartext password.
Password Hashes in /etc/passwd: Occasionally, you will see password hashes directly in the /etc/passwd file. This file is readable by all users, and as with hashes in the
shadow file, these can be subjected to an offline password cracking attack. This configuration, while not common, can sometimes be seen on embedded devices and routers.
[!bash!]$ cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin <...SNIP...> dnsmasq:x:109:65534:dnsmasq,,,:/var/lib/misc:/bin/false sshd:x:110:65534::/var/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin mrb3n:x:1000:1000:mrb3n,,,:/home/mrb3n:/bin/bash colord:x:111:118:colord colour management daemon,,,:/var/lib/colord:/bin/false backupsvc:x:1001:1001::/home/backupsvc: bob.jones:x:1002:1002::/home/bob.jones: cliff.moore:x:1003:1003::/home/cliff.moore: logger:x:1004:1004::/home/logger: shared:x:1005:1005::/home/shared: stacey.jenkins:x:1006:1006::/home/stacey.jenkins: sysadm:$6$vdH7vuQIv6anIBWg$Ysk.UZzI7WxYUBYt8WRIWF0EzWlksOElDE0HLYinee38QI1A.0HW7WZCrUhZ9wwDz13bPpkTjNuRoUGYhwFE11:1007:1007::/home/sysadm:
Cron Jobs: Cron jobs on Linux systems are similar to Windows scheduled tasks. They are often set up to perform maintenance and backup tasks. In conjunction with other misconfigurations such as relative paths or weak permissions, they can leverage to escalate privileges when the scheduled cron job runs.
[!bash!]$ ls -la /etc/cron.daily/ total 60 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Aug 30 23:49 . drwxr-xr-x 93 root root 4096 Aug 30 23:47 .. -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 376 Mar 31 2016 apport -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1474 Sep 26 2017 apt-compat -rwx--x--x 1 root root 379 Aug 30 23:49 backup -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 355 May 22 2012 bsdmainutils -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1597 Nov 27 2015 dpkg -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 372 May 6 2015 logrotate -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1293 Nov 6 2015 man-db -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 539 Jul 16 2014 mdadm -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 435 Nov 18 2014 mlocate -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 249 Nov 12 2015 passwd -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102 Apr 5 2016 .placeholder -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3449 Feb 26 2016 popularity-contest -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 214 May 24 2016 update-notifier-common
Unmounted File Systems and Additional Drives: If you discover and can mount an additional drive or unmounted file system, you may find sensitive files, passwords, or backups that can be leveraged to escalate privileges.
File Systems & Additional Drives
[!bash!]$ lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 30G 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 29G 0 part / ├─sda2 8:2 0 1K 0 part └─sda5 8:5 0 975M 0 part [SWAP] sr0 11:0 1 848M 0 rom
SETUID and SETGID Permissions: Binaries are set with these permissions to allow a user to run a command as root, without having to grant root-level access to the user. Many binaries contain functionality that can be exploited to get a root shell.
Writeable Directories: It is important to discover which directories are writeable if you need to download tools to the system. You may discover a writeable directory where a cron job places files, which provides an idea of how often the cron job runs and could be used to elevate privileges if the script that the cron job runs is also writeable.
Find Writable Directories
[!bash!]$ find / -path /proc -prune -o -type d -perm -o+w 2>/dev/null /dmz-backups /tmp /tmp/VMwareDnD /tmp/.XIM-unix /tmp/.Test-unix /tmp/.X11-unix /tmp/systemd-private-8a2c51fcbad240d09578916b47b0bb17-systemd-timesyncd.service-TIecv0/tmp /tmp/.font-unix /tmp/.ICE-unix /proc /dev/mqueue /dev/shm /var/tmp /var/tmp/systemd-private-8a2c51fcbad240d09578916b47b0bb17-systemd-timesyncd.service-hm6Qdl/tmp /var/crash /run/lock
Writeable Files: Are any scripts or configuration files world-writable? While altering configuration files can be extremely destructive, there may be instances where a minor modification can open up further access. Also, any scripts that are run as root using cron jobs can be modified slightly to append a command.
Find Writable Files
[!bash!]$ find / -path /proc -prune -o -type f -perm -o+w 2>/dev/null /etc/cron.daily/backup /dmz-backups/backup.sh /proc /sys/fs/cgroup/memory/init.scope/cgroup.event_control <SNIP> /home/backupsvc/backup.sh <SNIP>
As we have seen, there are various manual enumeration techniques that we can perform to gain information to inform various privilege escalation attacks. A variety of techniques exist that can be leveraged to perform local privilege escalation on Linux, which we will cover in the next sections.